Aside from Greek as one of the ancient languages of the New Testament, Aramaic peshitta is also an ancient language that other people refer to.

I made an analysis about the 3rd clause of John 1:1 in Greek since many people say “Theos” in the 3rd clause is not a noun but an adjective since it does not have a definite article.

Let us look at Aramaic Peshitta, the equivalent Greek word of Theos or God in Greek is “Alaha” in Aramaic Peshitta.

Here is the screenshot from my Aramaic peshitta interlinear in John 1:1

john 1-1syriac

If we read from the right going to the left, this is how it is:

ܒ݁ܪܺܫܺܝܬ݂ ܐܺܝܬ݂ܰܘܗ݈ܝ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܡܶܠܬ݂ܳܐ ܘܗܽܘ ܡܶܠܬ݂ܳܐ ܐܺܝܬ݂ܰܘܗ݈ܝ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܠܘܳܬ݂ ܐܰܠܳܗܳܐ ܘܰܐܠܳܗܳܐ ܐܺܝܬ݂ܰܘܗ݈ܝ ܗ݈ܘܳܐ ܗܽܘ ܡܶܠܬ݂ܳܐ

breesheeth eethawhy hwa miltha, whoo miltha, eethawhy hwa lwath alaha, walaha eethawhy hwa hoo miltha

The 3rd clause of John 1:1 is often disputed and here is the 3rd clause of John 1:1 in Aramaic peshitta, “walaha eethawhy hwa hoo miltha.”

We can read from here the word, “Walaha” which means “and God”(The conjunction we- means and.)

Is this an adjective as what other ministers preach?

Alaha is a noun.

To translate it as an adjective is motivated by theological concerns.

What if there is no definite article in “Alaha” of Aramaic peshitta? Will this be a noun?

Alaha is a noun, whether used in the absolute state or in the determined state.

What about the basis of some ministers that the translation of the 3rd clause should not be God but Divine?

“Alaha” never means “divine”. “Alaha” is “The God” or “a god”. The Aramaic word for divine is “Alahaya”.

The term, “Word” or “Logos” is believed by some ministers to become flesh as a “Concept” but not God but the Aramaic word for concept is “Reyana”.

The “Word” or “Logos” in Aramaic Peshitta is “Miltha”.

“Miltha” (ܡܠܬܐ) The Word” is typically a feminine word but it is masculine in said passage which indicates a change in reference from the standard meaning. Verse 1 simply denotes “Miltha” with “Alaha”- God, not “a god”, since “Miltha” was with “Alaha” in the beginning, is called “Alaha” and all things existed by him (“bee thay wa”-“in his hand” indicates a person) and without whom nothing existed of things that existed. This means “Miltha” was not a created thing (thing that existed). Miltha is the Existence and Source of all things that exist